Cerebral Palsy

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                                                                                                                        What is it?

Cerebral palsy is a disease that affects children at an early age, and it is diagnosed as a group of disorders and disturbances in the child’s motor and muscular capabilities and capabilities, which differ and vary in different degrees depending on the extent of the injury and damage to which the brain is exposed in the different stages of its development.

Quick shot: muscular and muscular dysfunctions usually include impaired level of neuromuscular coordination, stiff stiff muscles, weak muscles and muscle twitching.

However, the matter does not depend only on the movement disorders and the efficiency of the body in its performance, but it may also extend to sensory imbalances such as vision, hearing, sensation and touch and related to the centers of brain development (such as the level of intelligence and speech) and disorders in the functioning of the body’s organs (such as the process of swallowing food.

الشلل الدماغي

Why is this happening?

Cerebral palsy occurs as a result of abnormal growth and permanent damage to certain parts of the brain, including mainly and mainly those areas of the brain related to movement and balance, and areas that constitute the position and shape of a healthy body.

In many cases, the cause of this damage is unknown and not known exactly, but it may be summed up in general several factors that help find cerebral palsy and infection

The reasons include the followings:

1- Genetic and environmental factors may play an important role in the occurrence of an imbalance during the migration of brain cells into the child’s brain during the different stages of development.

*About 2% of cases are believed to be caused by a genetic cause.

2-Unintended deprivation of oxygen to the brain during the birth process, Thus leading to death of brain cells in areas that lead to cerebral palsy when they are damaged.

3-Insufficient cover of myelin coated nerve cells and their fibers.

4-Irregular nervous entanglement after childbirth as a result of trauma, inflammation or suffocation.

5-Rupture of the blood vessels during the birth process.

Brain imbalance may occur in three primary and central periods of a child’s life. The common factor among them is the continuation of the brain’s growth and development process. It can affect the child during pregnancy, during the birth process or during the postpartum period, until the age of 5 years.

Brain dysfunction does not change for the whole lifetime, but its physical effects change with growth.

Types of cerebral palsy:
Cerebral palsy is classified according to the degree of kinetic dysfunction of the affected limbs and organs and the activities carried out by the affected child. There are four categories of cerebral palsy as follow:

1-Spasticity

It is the most common case of cerebral palsy and occurs in more than seventy percent of cases, and people who fall into this category of cerebral palsy suffer from poor motor coordination and poor nerve receptors in the spine, which leads to high tension or twitching in the muscle muscle Through these fibers. Muscle spasms that occur frequently and in a consistent and regular pattern often lead to affected parties to increase the likelihood of symptoms of muscle stress very early, such as tendinitis and arthritis, and usually affect people in the age group from the mid-twenties to the mid-thirties of the first age.

Treatment for cerebral palsy is mainly based on physical or occupational therapy, the main component of which are the different exercise regimens that perform physical activity, such as stretching exercises and motor muscle strengthening exercises.

*In case of excessive cramping, therapeutic drugs are used to counter it, and if the issue is complicated, neurological surgery can be performed in some difficult cases.

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2-Ataxic

It is the second type of cerebral palsy, and it is the least common type. It appears in approximately 5 to 10 percent of all cases of cerebral palsy. The problem of this type is related mainly to its damage to the mulch region, which is the region of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements with each other and balance, and thus suffers mainly and mainly from coordination problems, especially in the limbs (arms and legs) and the trunk, as it affects muscle strength.

The tremor or tremor related to the completion of small and subtle actions is one of the most distinctive signs of thrombosis recurrent paralysis, such as eating a glass of water or writing, where its intensity increases with the length of work and reaches the height of tremors and frequency whenever the person approaches the completion of the task.

3-Inflamed or pseudo-cerebral palsy

This type mainly targets the basal ganglia or the carotid nodes because of lack and deprivation of the brain of sufficient oxygen for it during the growth and development of the brain. Inflammation of the inflamed cerebral palsy is usually confirmed within 18 months of observation and bedside examination after birth.

Acute cerebral palsy is divided into two categories: the placenta and nervous system, where the first type is characterized by exaggerated involuntary movements sometimes in the face and extremities, and the second type, the most prominent signs of it are slow and strong contractions that may occur in a specific area of ​​the body but may involve the whole body.

4-Mixed cerebral palsy

It is the fiercest form of cerebral palsy, as it consists of the three types we mentioned above, so that it may appear symptoms and shapes of the three at one time or each at different times in different and varying degrees for each type, and the mixed type of cerebral palsy is the most difficult species because it is not homogeneous in all its cases nor It is possible to predict the symptoms that will appear each time, and therefore it is a very dangerous type in terms of predicting the movements of the patient and is not predictable, because it is difficult over time to predict the future development of the patient’s condition.

                                  *Many matters relating to this species are still vague,
and it is a fertile research area that needs to be discovered.

Diagnosis of cerebral palsy

The physician can reach the diagnosis during the first year after birth, and the main obvious symptom is delayed growth and development, and muscle dysfunctions develop into spasms.

The parents should continuously follow up to their child with specialist till an advanced age . Use of different radiologists to determine the state of the joints and spine. The technological advancement and the computer also made it possible to carry out a numerical analysis of walking, and accordingly create an accurate program, so can evaluate it according to each variation of each case.

Treatment of cerebral palsy:

Treatment usually includes an integrative plan of the following procedures, but we may exclude some of them or need all of them depending on the child’s condition such as: physical therapy that focuses on strengthening the muscles mainly, occupational therapy in which the focus is on functional movements of the body and moving the limbs for various operations such as walking, and the use of orthoses Teeth for speech therapy and other orthopedic devices.

 Alternative treatments: water therapy and horse riding.

 Surgically: Neurological surgeries to correct anatomical anomalies.

Many different medical specialties overlap when treating cerebral palsy. The medical team usually consists of a pediatrician, a physiotherapist, an orthodontist, and a linguist.

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